Bagan is a historic royal city in Myanmar with over two thousand preserved sacral buildings made of brick. The area of temples covers approximately 36 square kilometers in a quilted landscape and is one of the largest archaeological sites in Southeast Asia. Bagan is located 155 km southwest of the town of Mandalay on the east bank of the Irrawaddy and is today one of the most important tourist destinations in the country.
The kingdom, whose center was Bagan for about 430 years, was the first united kingdom in present-day Myanmar. Bagan was by its very convenient location on Irrawaddy, where trade routes from China and India met, as early as the middle of the 9th century, the central place of Upper Burma. The city was surrounded by a wall in 849 by the king.
But only with the accession of King Anawrahta in 1044 and in the aftermath of his son Kyanzittha the city reached its peak. The deportation of the entire Mon educated elite to Bagan led to the adoption of the Mon script and its literary culture. Covering an area of 40 square kilometers, Bagan grew to become one of the largest cities in the Middle Ages, about 15 times larger than medieval London.
Like the Ascension, the decline of the Bagan Empire is related to the connection of temporal and spiritual power. Costs for both staff and temple construction weakened the state and so he had little to oppose the invading Thai and Mongolians. Before the army of the Mongol prince Kublai Khan occupied the city in 1287, the ruler of Bagan had many temples demolished for the erection of a city wall. With the flight of the king from the Mongols, the myth of Bagan as a bridge between heaven and earth was finally destroyed.
The so-called Bagan Archaeological Zone with its numerous temples, u.a. the Sulamani Temple, the Htilominlo Temple built around 1218, the Gubyauk Gyi or the Dhammayangyi, the largest temple in Bagan, covers an area of approximately 13 × 8 kilometers around Old Bagan and Nyaung U in the north and New -Bagan in the south includes.