Taitung is the earliest populated area in Taiwan. The indigenous tribes which formerly lived here disappeared long ago. However, the number of aborigines living in the vicinity of Taitung is still greater than the aboriginal population in the rest of Taiwan.
Taitung is located in the southeast of the island, bordering the Pingtung District, Kaohsiung in the northwest, Hualien in the north, and the Pacific Ocean in the east. Its capital is the city of Taitung.
Taitung covers 166 km of the southern part of the east coast of Taiwan. To the north of the capital, Taitung, the Huatung ditch runs parallel to the coast and separated by a mountain range of up to 1682 m high. The western part of the county belongs to the central mountain chain of Taiwan. It is located on the northwestern border of Guan Shan, 3686 m high, belonging to Yushan National Park.