The area of Taichung is bounded by the Miaoli County in the north and the Changhua and Nantou districts to the south. To the west lies Formosastraße, at the eastern tip the districts Hsinchu, Yilan, and Hualien. The coastal plain in the west and the Taichung Basin around the central city of Taichung, separated by a chain of hills, are densely populated and highly industrialized. In the east, the district reaches far into the impassable central Taiwan mountains.
The area has been inhabited by people for more than 4,000 years. At the beginning of the historical period, Native American tribes lived and hunted here on the western Taiwanese plain. During the Qing Dynasty, many mainland China came from the provinces of Fujian and Canton.